Viral Infections

An increase of harmful viruses in the human body is called viral infection. Microscopic bacteria (viruses) are present everywhere. However, viruses are smaller than bacteria and need a host to reproduce. It usually affects animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. In addition, the way a virus affects a car or a dog is different.

Viral Infections

A multiplication of viruses in the body is called viral infection. Viruses introduce genetic materials into the cells of the body and change the internal mechanisms of the cells to produce more viruses.

The Difference Between Bacterial and Viral Infections

Viruses consist of a protein coat and a genetic substance (RNA or DNA). The most massive virus is lower and smaller than bacteria. Moreover, a virus needs a host to thrive but bacteria can survive without it. Not all bacteria cause diseases compared to viruses. In addition, viruses attack different cells such as the respiratory system, blood, or liver cells, while others attack bacteria.

How Do You Get Infected by a Virus?

Usually, viruses are present everywhere and they enter and infect the body through the mouth, and nose, and break into the skin. Thereafter, they locate a host cell to contaminate. The cell they infect depends on the type of virus an individual gets. Check below the working mechanism of a virus:

  • Adsorption is when a virus finds a host cell to infect.
  • Penetration – releases its genetic substance into the host cells.
  • Biosynthesis occurs when the virus multiplies in the body.
  • Assembly and Release The replicated substance produces viral phages and an infected cell releases the recently formed viral phages.

Types of Viral Infection

Viral Respiratory Infections

  • Rhinovirus (it means Rhin is “nose”) is an infection that provokes the common cold. Moreover, it can cause sore throats and ear, and sinus infections, which may lead to bronchitis and pneumonia.
  • Seasonal Influenza usually affects 5-20% of Americans every year. The common symptoms of this infection are runny nose, sore throat, joint or muscle spasms, severe malaise, cough, headaches, and others. Talk with a doctor if you experience any of the previous symptoms.
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is one of the most prevalent viruses that provokes cold-like symptoms in children and adults. In the United States of America, approximately 2.1 million children are affected by RSV.

Food Bourne Viral Infection

Viruses are the main cause of food poisoning worldwide and symptoms depend on the virus that contaminated that food.

  • Rota Virus is one of the most infectious viruses that provokes diarrhea. It can infect people of any age and the risk is higher for small children. Before the vaccine, this virus infected roughly every child before they turned five years old. Rota Virus accounts for more than 215,000 deaths every year in the U.S.
  • Norovirus is the factor that causes diarrhea and vomiting. It usually infects people and makes them sick. This virus can be transmitted through an infected person or contaminated food or water. About 20 million people are affected by this virus in the U.S.
  • Hepatitis A is a virus that causes highly infectious liver disease. In most cases, symptoms are mild and persist for several days only but for others, symptoms can be severe and last for months. This virus spreads through contaminated water or food or direct contact with an infected individual.

Viral Skin Infections

Check below the common viral skin infections:

  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the virus of shingles and chickenpox. A common childhood factor that provokes fever, viremia, and disturbed vesicular lesions all over the body is called chickenpox.
  • Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that provokes round, sturdy, and painless bulges of different sizes. It is not allowed to scratch the bumps because they can spread. In addition, bumps are also called water warts.
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) comes in two forms HSV-1 and HSV-2. First, causes oral herpes and rises to cold sores and fever blisters on the face and mouth. The second form can provoke sexually transmitted diseases (such as genital herpes). Additionally, more than 50% of adults in the U.S. have oral herpes.

Sexually Transmitted Viral Infections

  • Human Papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted disease and people usually do not have symptoms but can transmit this condition through skin to others. Some people with this disease are at higher risk of cervical cancer. However, vaccines are available that can help you prevent and decrease the risk of cancer.
  • Hepatitis B is a virus that usually causes chronic and acute disorders. Generally, this virus is transmitted from mother to child at birth. There are hepatitis B vaccinations that may help you to prevent this disease. Additionally, an injection of immunoglobulin may also protect you from getting sick. Approximately 1.2 million in the U.S. and 350 million people around the world suffer from this health condition.
  • HIV is a virus that affects T-cells of the immune system. If this infection progresses, one’s immune system loses the ability to fight against diseases. On our website, you can find some medicines that can help treat this infection.
  • Genital Herpes as we know HSV-2 provokes this condition. However, there is no cure for this infection. In any case, your healthcare professional may prescribe antiviral medicines to decrease the number of seizures and lessen the symptoms.

Other Viral Infections

  • Viral Meningitis is a widespread meningitis that can infect the brain and spinal cord lining. Stiffness of the neck, headaches, and fever are the common symptoms of this infection. This condition is less severe than bacterial meningitis and it occurs usually due to enteroviruses.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) also known as human gammaherpesvirus 4, is the most widespread virus in humans.
  • West Nile Virus (WNY) is an RNA that can cause West Nile Fever, a mosquito-borne disease with little or even no symptoms. Skin rash, fever, body aches, headaches, and swelling of the lymph gland may occur if you experience this condition. Additionally, WNY can be fatal if it reaches the brain.

How to Prevent Viral Infections?

General Measures

Check below some measures that can help you to prevent a viral infection:

  • Frequently wash your hands, especially before a meal or preparing food.
  • Avoid contaminated surfaces and infected persons
  • Healthy food
  • It is recommended to use a tissue while sneezing or coughing
  • Use condoms or dental dams during sexual activity
  • Try to prevent mosquito bites or other arthropods

Immune Globulins

This method acts like antibodies that fight against infection. To reinforce your immune system, you can administer immune globulins by injecting them into a vein or muscle.


These treatment options help to stimulate your immune system and make it fight against diseases and infections. Hence, before exposure to germs, people usually should administer a vaccine. Check below some popular viral vaccinations:

  • Polio
  • Rotavirus
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Herpes Zoster
  • Yellow Fever
  • Varicella
  • Measles, Rubella, Mumps
  • Rabies
  • Human Papillomavirus
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Influenza

Additionally, smallpox vaccines also exist but they are administered to military personnel only because they are at higher risk for the disease.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the common symptoms of a viral infection?

Tiredness, fever, cough, runny nose, headaches, diarrhea, chills, seizures, abdominal pain, and skin rash are the common symptoms of viral infections. If you experience any of the previous symptoms, it is advised to get medical help immediately.

How long will a viral infection last?

If the symptoms do not improve within 10 days, it is recommended to get medical help. A viral infection usually lasts between 7-15 days. For more details, talk with a healthcare provider.

Are natural supplements that can kill viral infections?

Yes, Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, Potassium, Probiotics, and Polyphenols are some supplements that can help you fight against viral infections. However, if you intend to use these supplements for a viral infection, first consult with a physician.

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