Male Reproductive System

The organs that are involved in sexual function and reproduction in males or people assigned to males at birth (AMAB) is the reproductive male system. The organs include both external and internal, which together produce, store, and ejaculate sperm that helps to fertilize eggs created by females. This process helps a woman to become pregnant. This reproductive system also produces hormones (including Testosterone). This hormone is important for male development.

The male sexual organs do not work completely until puberty. During this period a child starts physical transformation into adulthood. It usually begins when the hypothalamus and pituitary gland start to produce hormones that tell your testicles to make sperm and Testosterone. This hormone helps in the development of the prostate gland, testicles, penis, seminal vesicles, and others. Check below for other characteristics that Testosterone helps to develop:

  • Hair of the face, armpits, and genitals
  • Muscle development
  • Voice deepening
  • Growth spurts (height)


The men reproductive system performs the following functions. For example, produces sperm, discharges sperm during sexual intercourse, and makes and releases male sex hormones.

External Male Reproductive Organs

The external male reproductive organs consist of penis, scrotum, testes, and epididymis.

  • Penis – This part is involved in sexual activity and consists of three parts including the root, body (shaft), and glans (the end part of the penis). The semen and urine go through a tube that connects the urethra and the tip of the penis. The glans contain several nerve endings that are sensitive. The penis body also contains special tissues that fill with blood during sexual arousing. Thus, it becomes erect and rigid, which allows penetration during sexual activity.
  • Scrotum – This is a protective layer of the testicles. It also contains blood vessels and nerves. The scrotum also is responsible for maintaining the temperature of the testicles that is required for normal sperm development.
  • Testicles – The size of the testes is compared with the size of large olives. They lie in the scrotum secured by a spermatic cord. Mostly, men have two testicles that are responsible for producing Testosterone. Testes also produce inhibin B (helps to produce sperm), insulin-like factor 3 (helps with the development of the testicles), Mullerian inhibiting substance or anti-Mullerian hormone (plays an important role in the development of the male sexual organs), and Estradiol.
  • Epididymis – This is a long tube that is located in the back of each testicle. It helps to transport and store the sperm cells. The contractions that occur during sexual arousal force sperm into the vas deferens.

Internal Male Reproduction Organs

  • Vas Deferens – The muscular tube that connects the pelvic cavity and epididymis is called the vas deferens. It helps to transport the mature sperm to the urethra outside the body.
  • Ejaculatory Ducts – These ducts consist of seminal vesicles and the vas deferens.
  • Urethra – The tube that carries urine from the bladder outside the body is called urethra. The additional function of the urethra is to ejaculate semen at orgasm. However, the flow of the urine is blocked when the penis is erect during sexual activity to allow the semen to be ejaculated.
  • Seminal Vesicles – These are pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the bladder. They make a sugar-rich fluid that helps sperm to move.
  • Prostate Gland – This gland is located below the bladder in the front of the rectum. It helps to nourish the sperm that move through the urethra outside the body. In addition, the prostate gland converts Testosterone into Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which contributes to sexual development.
  • Bulbourethral Glands – These are small glands located on the sides of the urethra below the prostate gland. These glands are also known as Cowper’s glands.


Check below some hormones that are involved in sexual function:

  • Androgens – One of the most common androgens is Testosterone. It helps to produce sperm and is responsible for the development of men’s characteristics including muscle and mass strength, fast distribution, bone mass, facial hair growth, voice changes, sex drive, and others.
  • Estrogens – This is a female hormone but males also produce it but in smaller amounts. However, if a man has low estrogen levels, it may affect sexual desire, increase belly fat, and others. On the other hand, elevated Estrogen levels can provoke infertility, large breasts, and poor erections.

Symptoms and Diseases of the Male Reproductive System

  • Erectile Dysfunction (ED) – People with this condition usually experience difficulty getting and maintaining an erection and low sex drive.
  • Premature Ejaculation (PE) – This is a condition in which a man ejaculates before he or his partner wants.
  • Phimosis – In such cases, people are not able to pull back the foreskin. The most common symptoms include swelling, soreness, redness, discoloration, pain when urinating, and others.
  • Paraphimosis – Those who suffer from this condition get their foreskin stuck behind the head of the penis. Moreover, it is considered a medical emergency that requires surgery. Symptoms include inability to pull the foreskin over the head of the penis, pain, swelling, and discoloration.
  • Epididymitis – This condition causes an inflammation of the epididymis. The most common symptoms include painful urination, frequent or urgent need to pee, discharge from the penis, blood in the semen, testicle pain or tenderness, discomfort and swelling in the scrotum.
  • Male Infertility – This is a condition in which a man is not able to impregnate a woman.
  • Peyronie’s Disease – A genetic condition that causes your penis to curve or bend. The symptoms include lumps in the penis, pain during sexual intercourse, erectile dysfunction, and others.
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) – Commonly, the symptoms are different among people because it depends on the type of STI a person experiences. For example, discharge from the penis, pain during sex or when you are urinating, swelling around the penis, bumps, warts, or sores on the penis, frequent urination, and others.
  • Hypogonadism (low Testosterone levels) – People with this condition usually experience fatigue (extreme tiredness), erectile function problems, depression, loss of muscle, reduced sex drive, irritability, and others.
  • Priapism – A condition in which a man experiences an erection for more than 4 hours. It causes pain in the penis that often worsens over time.
  • Testicular Torsion – This condition is considered a medical emergency and it interrupts the blood flow to the testicles. The symptoms include fever, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, discoloration in the scrotum, and others.
  • Varicocele – A health condition in which the scrotum veins become enlarged. Thus, it can provoke infertility. However, in most cases, this disease is asymptomatic. Symptoms include a lump above the affected testicle, shrinking and swelling of the testicles and scrotum, dull pain in the testicles, and others.
  • Hypospadias – This is a birth defect that provokes curving of the penis, urinating problems, and others.
  • Testicular Cancer – This is a rare cancer type. The most common symptoms include sudden swelling of the scrotum, back pain, enlarged breasts, discomfort or pain in the testicles, and others.
  • Penile Cancer – While it is a rare form of cancer, once it occurs the following symptoms can happen. Examples include lumps on the penis, rash, flat growths on the penis, swelling, and others.
  • Prostate Cancer – Usually, people do not notice any symptoms until this type of cancer advances. However, the most common symptoms include difficulty urinating, blood in the semen or pee, erectile function issues, hips, back, or rib pain, numbness, weakness, weight loss, extreme tiredness (fatigue), loss of bowel or bladder control, and others.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the most common conditions in men’s reproductive system?

  • Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
  • Testicular cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Male infertility
  • Priapism

In case you suspect you have a reproductive system disease, contact your doctor right away.

How to keep the male reproductive system healthy?

The following tips can help you to prevent or avoid certain diseases of the reproductive system. For example:

  • Regular STI testing
  • Good hygiene
  • Practice safe sex (use condoms or dental dams during sexual activity)
  • Manage any existing chronic conditions (including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, high cholesterol levels, obesity, and others)
  • Quit smoking or never begin
  • Get HPV vaccine
  • Try to lose weight if you are overweight

What are the primary male reproductive organs?

  • Penis
  • Vas deferens
  • Urethra
  • Scrotum
  • Epididymis
  • Accessory glands
  • Prostate
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Semen
  • Ejaculatory ducts
  • Spermatic cord
  • Bulbourethral gland

Ask your healthcare professional if you have any additional questions.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You were not leaving your cart just like that, right?

Enter your details below to save your shopping cart for later. And, who knows, maybe we will even send you a sweet discount code :)