The eyes are important sensory organs that send information to the brain about the outside world. In addition, these organs help also to identify problems affecting your whole body. That’s why experts recommend making eyes a health priority.

What are Eyes?

Eyes allow you to see by capturing visible light around you. Therefore, it turns into a form that your brain uses to make your sense of vision. Furthermore, the brain does not have sensory abilities. Thus, it needs your eyes or other senses including hearing and touch to gather information about what is happening around you.

Approximately all people are born with two eyes, which work together. They give you color vision and a view field roughly 200 degrees wide and 135 degrees tall. In case your eyes work properly, they give you depth perception and 3D vision.

In addition, doctors use vision and sight terms interchangeably but it does not necessarily mean the same thing. However, sight is what the eyes do but vision is the entire process that begins with sight and finishes with your brain processing the eyes see.


The eyes work by capturing light from the outside world. Hence, eye structure allows light to pass through several clear components including cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor. As a result, these structures adjust how far the light beams travel before coming into focus. Moreover, the focus is required to be exact and if it is not, the image appears blurred.

Once light lands on the retina cells, they send signals to the brain, which are similar to coded messages. These messages help to describe all they can about the light including color, how intense it is, and other details. Thereafter, the brain decodes the signals and helps to “build” the image a person sees.


The eyes are a complex organ, which consists of different parts that work together for you to see. Check below the eye parts:

  • Cornea – This is a protective layer similar to a windshield that helps to protect the inside of your eye.
  • Sclera – This white eye part forms the general structure and shape of the eyeball.
  • Conjunctiva – It covers and clears the sclera.
  • Aqueous Humor – This is a special fluid that fills a space usually called the anterior chamber.
  • Iris – This eye part contains muscles that help to change the size of the pupil. Iris is also responsible for eye color, which can be brown, blue, green, or hazel.
  • Pupil – The black circle inside the iris is called the pupil. It controls how much light enters your eye by narrowing or widening.
  • Lens – This eye part is responsible for focusing the light that passes into the eye.
  • Vitreous Humor – Also called the vitreous is a fluid that fills the space between the retina and lens. It helps to maintain eye shape.
  • Retina – This helps to convert light to electrical signals.
  • Macula – It helps to see fine details and color. However, it also is responsible for the center of your visual field.
  • Optic Nerve – It is similar to a data cable that helps to carry signals from the eyes to the brain.
  • External Muscles – These are muscles that help to control the eye’s alignment, movement, and position.


Check below most common conditions and disorders that impact your eyes:

  • Age-related Eye Disorders – People who are over 65 years old are more likely to develop some eye disorders. For example cataracts, macular degeneration, or glaucoma. These conditions are enough serious to cause permanent vision loss.
  • Optic Nerve-related Conditions – Optic neuritis and optic atrophy are two diseases that negatively affect the nerves that connect the eyes and brain.
  • Retinal Disorders – Usually, these disorders affect directly the retina. However, they may happen due to other conditions. For example, lattice degeneration can provoke retinal detachment.
  • Corneal Disorders – These are some conditions that impact the cornea itself and can occur due to many reasons. Beginning with congenital conditions to diseases that develop later in your life.
  • Refractive Errors – This problem can take many forms such as focusing too soon (nearsightedness) or too late (farsightedness). These errors can also cause astigmatism.

Furthermore, the eyes are also susceptible to some general issues and disorders. Examples include:


The symptoms usually vary among people because it depends on what part of the eye is affected, the severity of the condition, your age, and others. However, some conditions may contribute to your vision such as type 2 diabetes can provoke vision loss over time. Check below some common symptoms:

  • Red or watery eyes
  • Irritation
  • Discharge from your eyes
  • Sclera color changes (such as blur or yellow)
  • Bleeding into the conjunctiva
  • Certain changes that impact your pupil or iris (including leukocoria, coloboma, and others)
  • Eye misalignment (strabismus)
  • Blurred vision
  • Night or color blindness
  • Sudden vision loss
  • Low vision
  • Double vision
  • Light sensitivity

In case you experience any of them, immediately contact your physician.

In addition, some eye problems including sight or vision changes, and eye movement may occur not due to an eye disease. These symptoms can be caused by a health condition elsewhere in your body. For example, if you experience jaundice you may notice the yellowing of the sclera.

In other words, the eyes are considered the window to your brain. As a result, certain vision problems may indicate some brain problems such as strokes or concussions.


There are different tests that help to identify eye conditions or those that provoke eye symptoms. Eye examination is one of the most important tests that should be done regularly. It helps physicians to diagnose many eye conditions and prevent long-term vision damage or problems. Check below other common tests:

  • Retinal imaging tests
  • Slit lamp examination
  • Visual acuity and field tests
  • Intraocular pressure test
  • Glaucoma tests
  • Ultrasound or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • Color blindness test

Additionally, healthcare professionals may order you to do tests for other body systems that potentially might contribute to or provoke eye symptoms. In any case, discuss with your physician before doing any tests or using any medicines.


Doctors usually prescribe the following treatment options for eye problems or conditions. Examples include:

  • Medicines – Drugs are prescribed by doctors to treat different eye conditions. These include ointments, drops, injections, and tablets.
  • Vision Correction – If you are experiencing nearsightedness, farsightedness, or age-related vision problems, doctors may prescribe contact lenses or eyeglasses. Other people may choose vision correction surgery.
  • Surgery – This procedure can treat many eye conditions. Surgeons usually perform phacoemulsification, cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and laser surgery.

Furthermore, you may receive other treatments that are for other health conditions. Unfortunately, an individual may experience a disease that provokes eye symptoms. In any case, do not administer any medicines without a doctor’s approval because they may lead to certain unpleasant symptoms or worsen the existing.

Frequently Asked Questions

How can I care for and keep my eyes healthy?

Check below several tips that can help you maintain your eyes healthy:

  • It is recommended to get regular eye examinations
  • Wear eye protection
  • Quit tobacco products or never start
  • Adopt a healthy diet (including vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients)
  • You should try to lose weight if you are overweight or obese
  • Consult with your doctor if you experience any eye symptoms, do not ignore them

When should I seek medical care for my eyes?

If you experience any of the following cases, do not hesitate to consult your doctor. Examples include:

  • Sudden vision loss
  • Something stuck in your eye
  • Eye injuries
  • Burns around eyes
  • If you notice your eyes are red, swollen, bruised, or bleed
  • In case your vision becomes hazy, foggy, or cloudy
  • You notice chills, fever, vomiting, and other infection symptoms alongside eye symptoms
  • Kaleidoscope vision
  • Sudden tunnel vision
  • Loss of central vision or distortions

Early diagnosis and treatment of eye concerns can prevent future complications.

What are the most common eye issues?

  • Retinal diseases (such as diabetes-related retinopathy)
  • Age-related macular degeneration or cataracts
  • Refractive errors
  • Glaucoma
  • Dry eye disease

Immediately, get medical attention if you notice any of the previous eye conditions.

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